Can phosphorus be hypervalent?
Phosphorus pentachloride (PCl5), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), chlorine trifluoride (ClF3), and the triiodide ion (I3−) are examples of hypervalent molecules. For the elements in the second period of the periodic table (principal energy level n=2), the s2p6 electrons comprise the octet, and no d sublevel exists.
What causes Hypervalency?
When atoms contain more than eight electrons in their valence shell, they are said to be hypervalent. Hypervalency allows atoms with n≥3 to break the octet rule by having more than eight electrons. This also means they can have five or more bonds; something that is nearly unheard of for atoms with n≤2.
What is the octet for phosphorus?
Species with Expanded Octets For example, in the case of phosphorus, the valence shell has a principal quantum number n = 3. An octet would be 3s23p6. However, the 3d subshell is also available, and some of the 3d orbitals may also be involved in bonding.
Is PCl5 hypervalent?
Several specific classes of hypervalent molecules exist: Hypervalent iodine compounds are useful reagents in organic chemistry (e.g. Dess–Martin periodinane) Tetra-, penta- and hexavalent phosphorus, silicon, and sulfur compounds (ex. PCl5, PF5, SF6, sulfuranes and persulfuranes)
Which compound is hypervalent?
A hypervalent molecule is a molecule that contains one or more main group elements formally bearing more than eight electrons in their valence shells. So ClO4− is hypervalent as Cl contains more than 8 electron and SO42− is hypervalent as S contains more than 8 electrons.
What are hypervalent species?
Hint: A hypervalent molecule or a hypervalent species is a compound in which the given molecule contains one or more main group elements, and have more than eight electrons in their valence shell. This phenomenon is also commonly known as ‘expanded octet’.
Is clf5 a hypervalent?
Ab initio electronic structure calculations have been performed on the hypervalent chlorine fluorides, ClF3, ClF5 and ClF7 in order to determine their thermodynamic stabilities with respect to dissociation to ClF and nF2.
Does o3 show Hypervalency?
Using this definition, it is found that well-known species such as O3, CH2N2 and ClO4−, are indeed hypervalent, whilst others such as XeF4, PCl5 and SO42−, are not.
Can phosphorus expand its octet?
Sulfur, phosphorus, silicon, and chlorine are common examples of elements that form an expanded octet.
How can phosphorus have 5 bonds?
Simple answer: hybridization. Phosphorus only ‘needs’ three more electrons to get a full valence shell of eight, but you’ll notice that it actually has five valence electrons, so in theory all of these could bond.