What effect does GLP-1 have on blood glucose concentrations?
Clinical studies demonstrate that the blood glucose-lowering action of GLP-1 is itself glucose-dependent. More specifically, GLP-1 reduces levels of blood glucose only when concentrations of blood glucose are elevated above fasting levels, as is the case after a meal.
Which of the following complications may be caused by GLP-1 agents?
The most common symptoms associated with the use of GLP-1 receptor agonists are gastrointestinal symptoms, mainly nausea. Other common adverse effects include injection site reactions, headache, and nasopharyngitis, but these effects do not usually result in discontinuation of the drug.
How is GLP-1 metabolism?
Among the numerous metabolic effects of GLP-1 are the glucose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion, decrease of gastric emptying, inhibition of food intake, increase of natriuresis and diuresis, and modulation of rodent β-cell proliferation.
What does GLP-1 do in the body?
The main actions of GLP-1 are to stimulate insulin secretion (i.e., to act as an incretin hormone) and to inhibit glucagon secretion, thereby contributing to limit postprandial glucose excursions.
How does epinephrine increase blood glucose?
When blood glucose levels drop too low, the adrenal glands secrete epinephrine (also called adrenaline), causing the liver to convert stored glycogen to glucose and release it, raising blood glucose levels.
Does DPP 4 inhibitors increase insulin sensitivity?
Oral dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors increase pancreatic β-cells and insulin sensitivity in the liver, muscle and adipose tissues . Besides, DPP4 therapy has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic effects, and can improve endothelial function and reduce vascular stiffness .
What are the side effects of liraglutide?
Liraglutide injection may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:
- runny nose, sneezing, or cough.
- difficulty urinating or pain or burning on urination.
- injection site rash or redness.