What function do Vdac protein pores serve?
VDAC is the most abundant protein in the OMM43 and serves as the main pathway for metabolite/ion transport between the cytosol and the IMS of mitochondria (see Figure 7-1, A, C).
Where is hexokinase 2 found?
Hexokinase II (HK-II) is a predominant isoform in insulin-sensitive tissues such as heart, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissues. It is also upregulated in many types of tumors associated with enhanced aerobic glycolysis in tumor cells, the Warburg effect.
Is hexokinase found in mitochondria?
Hexokinase II/B constitutes the principal regulated isoform in many cell types and is increased in many cancers. It is the hexokinase found in muscle and heart. Hexokinase II is also located at the mitochondria outer membrane so it can have direct access to ATP.
Does mitochondria induce apoptosis?
Mitochondria play key roles in activating apoptosis in mammalian cells. Bcl-2 family members regulate the release of proteins from the space between the mitochondrial inner and outer membrane that, once in the cytosol, activate caspase proteases that dismantle cells and signal efficient phagocytosis of cell corpses.
What does OPA1 stand for?
OPA1 (OPA1 Mitochondrial Dynamin Like GTPase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with OPA1 include Optic Atrophy 1 and Optic Atrophy With Or Without Deafness, Ophthalmoplegia, Myopathy, Ataxia, And Neuropathy.
Is hexokinase used in gluconeogenesis?
The gluconeogenesis pathway consumes ATP, which is derived primarily from the oxidation of fatty acids. The pathway uses several enzymes of the glycolysis with the exception of enzymes of the irreversible steps namely pyruvate kinase, 6-phosphofructokinase, and hexokinase.
What type of enzyme is hexokinase?
Hexokinase is a protein which is classified under the main grouping of a transferase enzyme. Its structure was first determined from yeast by Tom Steitz at Yale University. Hexokinase is the first enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, and it converts glucose into glucose-6-phosphate.
What causes mitochondrial apoptosis?
DNA damage, ischemia and oxidative stress are all examples of apoptotic signals that lead to cell death through the mitochondria. The mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis begins with the permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane.
What is Behr syndrome?
Behr syndrome is a disorder characterized by early-onset optic atrophy along with neurological features, including ataxia, spasticity, and intellectual disability. Other signs and symptoms may be present and vary from person to person. This condition is caused by mutations in the OPA1 gene.
Does hexokinase compete with BCL2 family proteins for binding to VDAC?
We hypothesize that hexokinase competes with Bcl2 family proteins for binding to VDAC to influence the balance of pro-and anti-apoptotic proteins that control outer membrane permeabilization. Hexokinase binding to VDAC is regulated by protein kinases, notably glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta and protein kinase C (PKC)-epsilon.
How do mitochondria-bound isoforms of hexokinase evade apoptosis?
1 Department of Life Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel. In tumour cells, elevated levels of mitochondria-bound isoforms of hexokinase (HK-I and HK-II) result in the evasion of apoptosis, thereby allowing the cells to continue proliferating.
What is the function of hexokinase in cancer?
In tumour cells, elevated levels of mitochondria-bound isoforms of hexokinase (HK-I and HK-II) result in the evasion of apoptosis, thereby allowing the cells to continue proliferating. The molecular mechanisms by which bound HK promotes cell survival are not yet fully understood.
What is VDAC in mitochondria?
Abstract The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is a β-barrel membrane protein located in the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). VDAC has two conductance states: an open anion selective state, and a closed and slightly cation-selective state.