How do you reduce nitrophenol?
Several methods have been developed to degrade nitrophenols, including microbial degradation, electro-Fenton method [8,9], photocatalytic degradation , and electrochemical method . Therefore, the development of materials with high performance for 4-NP reduction is highly required.
How do you make 4 Nitrophenol?
4-Nitrophenol is produced either by the catalytic hydrolysis of 4-nitrochlorobenzene or by the reaction of dilute HNO3 on phenol and subsequent steam distillation to separate the 4- from the 2- isomer (EPA 1985; HSDB 1989).
How do you synthesis nitrophenol?
p-nitrophenol is synthesized using p-nitrochlorobenzene and sodium hydroxide with phase transfer catalyst. Several reaction factors, such as catalyst type, the amounts of catalysts and sodium hydroxide, the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution as well as reaction time, affect greatly the yield of p-nitrophenol.
Why is 4-nitrophenol yellow?
A solution of 4-nitrophenol appears colorless below pH 5.4 and yellow above pH 7.5. This color-changing property makes this compound useful as a pH indicator. The yellow color of the 4-nitrophenolate form (or 4-nitrophenoxide) is due to a maximum of absorbance at 405 nm (ε = 18.3 to 18.4 mM−1 cm−1 in strong alkali).
Is p-nitrophenol toxic?
Acute (short-term) inhalation or ingestion of 4-nitrophenol in humans causes headaches, drowsiness, nausea, and cyanosis (blue color in lips, ears, and fingernails). Contact with eyes causes irritation in humans.
What is the literature value for the melting point of 4-aminophenol?
|Melting point||187.5 °C (369.5 °F; 460.6 K)|
|Boiling point||284 °C (543 °F; 557 K)|
|Solubility in water||1.5 g/100 mL|
Is 4-nitrophenol toxic?
Toxicity. 4-Nitrophenol irritates the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. It may also cause inflammation of those parts. It has a delayed interaction with blood and forms methaemoglobin which is responsible for methemoglobinemia, potentially causing cyanosis, confusion, and unconsciousness.
Is 4-nitrophenol soluble in water?
4-Nitrophenol is a colorless to light yellow solid with very little odor. 2-Nitrophenol is slightly soluble in cold water, but 4-nitrophenol is moderately soluble in cold water.
Is 2-Nitrophenol an acid or base?
2-nitrophenol is a member of the class of 2-nitrophenols that is phenol in which one of the hydrogens that is ortho to the hydroxy group has been replaced by a nitro group. It is a conjugate acid of a 2-nitrophenolate.