What does malakoplakia mean?
Malakoplakia is a rare granulomatous disease of infectious etiology that involves the skin and other organs. [1, 2] The name is derived from the Greek malakos (soft) and plakos (plaque), describing its usual clinical presentation as friable yellow soft plaques.
What causes malakoplakia?
The cause of malakoplakia is unknown, but is thought to be associated with immunodeficiency or autoimmune disorders, such as hypogammaglobinlinemia, therapies that suppress the immune system, cancer, a chronic debilitating disorder, rheumatoid arthritis, and AIDS.
What form of malakoplakia of the urinary bladder is?
Malakoplakia was first introduced in 1902 by Michaelis and Gutmann [1,2]. It is a rare inflammatory condition that is usually found in the urinary tract, mainly in the urinary bladder [3,4]. It forms soft yellow plaques, hence its name from the Greek words malako (soft) and plakia (plaque).
Where can you find Michaelis Gutmann bodies?
Michaelis–Gutmann bodies, (M-G bodies) are concentrically layered basophilic inclusions found in Hansemann cells in the urinary tract. They are 2 to 10 μm in diameter, and are thought to represent remnants of phagosomes mineralized by iron and calcium deposits.
What is cystitis Cystica?
Cystitis cystica is a benign proliferative lesion of the bladder as a result of a chronic reactive inflammatory disorder thought to be caused by chronic irritation of the urothelium because of infection, calculi, obstruction, or tumor.
What does the Urachus do?
The urachus is a canal that exists when the fetus is developing before birth. This canal runs from the bladder of the fetus to the belly button (umbilicus). It drains the urinary bladder of the fetus.
What is leukoplakia of the bladder?
Leukoplakia of the bladder is a rare condition. It is characterized by squamous metaplasia of the transitional epithelium and keratinization. The etiology and possible pathogenetic factors are discussed. Up to 42% develop carcinoma which makes early diagnosis important. The clinical diagnosis is difficult.
What happens when you have cystitis?
Cystitis signs and symptoms often include: A strong, persistent urge to urinate. A burning sensation when urinating. Passing frequent, small amounts of urine.
What is von Brunn nest?
von Brunn’s nests are non-neoplastic reactive lesions that occur in the bladder. They are groups of urothelial cells that are found in the superficial lamina propria that arise from invagination of the surface urothelium.
What is Nephrogenic adenoma?
Nephrogenic adenoma is a rare tumor, which usually occurs in the urinary tract, most frequently in the bladder. Its etiology is unknown, but association with trauma, nephrolithiasis, infection and radiation has been reported . Most patients are adults with an increased incidence in renal transplant patients [7, 8].
Is cystitis cystica premalignant?
Although cystitis cystica is considered to be a premalignant disease of the urinary bladder, remarkably few reports document the progression from cystitis cystica and glandularis to carcinoma of the bladder.
What is cystitis cystica et Glandularis?
Cystitis cystica (CC) and cystitis glandularis (CG) are benign, proliferative conditions of the bladder mucosa usually present in a setting of chronic mucosal irritation or inflammation. These lesions are commonly identified in the bladder, with a prevalence of 60–70% of cases in various autopsy studies.