What is normal MMP-9?
2 In other words, for women, the mean serum MMP-9 was 24.45 and the standard deviation was 5.075 ng/mL while for men, the mean value was 59.65 ng/mL with a standard deviation (SD) of 19.925.
What are MMP 2 and MMP-9?
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent proteases, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 are major members of the MMP family (6,7). MMP-2 and MMP-9 are mainly secreted by tumor cells and stromal cells in the form of zymogens.
What is TAA diagnosis?
TAA is diagnosed when there is at least 50% enlargement of the aortic lumen, or alternatively when the aortic diameter is more than two standard deviations above the mean for the patient’s sex and age. It is the most common disease of the thoracic aorta requiring surgical treatment.
Is AAA the same as aortic dissection?
An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is usually located below the kidneys. Aortic dissection can occur in the aorta and its main branches. Aneurysms and dissections are classified depending on where they occur in the aorta.
What aortic width would indicate an AAA?
An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is defined as an aortic diameter at least one and one-half times the normal diameter at the level of the renal arteries, which is approximately 2.0 cm. Thus, generally, a segment of abdominal aorta with a diameter of greater than 3.0 cm is considered an aortic aneurysm (1,2).
What is MMP-9 test?
MMP-9 is a marker of inflammation, tissue remodeling, wound healing, and mobilization of tissue-bound growth factors and cytokines.
How do Emts treat aortic dissection?
In patients with symptoms suggestive of thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA), prehospital care should consist of ensuring adequate airway and ventilation, providing oxygen via a nonrebreather mask, placing two large-bore intravenous lines, and providing continuous cardiac monitoring.
Can AAA cause aortic dissection?
Having an aortic aneurysm increases the risk of a tear in the aortic lining (aortic dissection), as shown in the image on the right.
What is considered high in MMP-9?
Results: The majority of the patients with HNSCC were found to have high concentrations of serum MMP-9. The levels of MMP-9 in the sera of patients with cancer ranged from 39 to 1547 ng/ml (mean, 417 ng/ml).
What does high MMP-9 mean?
High levels of serum MMP-9 are associated with rapid progression of metastatic melanoma (7) and predictor of lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients (8). Serum MMP-9 has been indicated as a prognostic factor in head and neck squamous carcinoma(9) and pancreatic cancer (10).
What is the function of MMP2?
Normal Function The MMP2 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called matrix metallopeptidase 2. This enzyme is produced in cells throughout the body and becomes part of the extracellular matrix, which is an intricate lattice of proteins and other molecules that forms in the spaces between cells.