How do you say et al out loud?
“et al.” is an abbreviation. When read aloud, you pronounce the full term “et alii” (or “et alia”) – same as you would say “et cetera” when reading aloud the “etc.” abbreviation. Alternatively, you could say “and others” – same as you would say “for example” when reading aloud the “e.g.” abbreviation.
How do you cite an article in turabian?
Basic Article Citation Last Name, “Article Title,” Journal Title Issue, number (date): page cited, doi or URL (if online). Short version: Author Last Name, “Article Title (shortened if necessary),” page cited.
How do you cite 4 authors in APA in text?
Specifically, articles with one or two authors include all names in every in-text citation; articles with three, four, or five authors include all names in the first in-text citation but are abbreviated to the first author name plus et al.
What should you do if you have a reference with two authors?
If you are citing a source that has multiple authors, follow these basic steps.
- 2 Authors: Always cite both authors’ names in-text everytime you reference them.
- 6 or More Authors: If a document has six or more authors, simply provide the last name of the first author with “et al.” from the first citation to the last.
How do you make et al possessive?
In the possessive form, et al. is followed by an apostrophe and an s: Simon et al.’s (2000) contribution to research … Latin words are sometimes italicised in English text, but abbreviations should not be in italics, unless the publisher requires it.
What does et al mean in a citation?
How do you cite a primary source in a secondary source?
Your in-text citation should include both authors: the author(s) of the original source and the author(s) of the secondary source. For example: (Habermehl, 1985, as cited in Kersten, 1987). In your reference list you should provide the details of the secondary source (the source you read).
Can you put a comma after et al?
The phrase “et al.”—from the Latin et alii, which literally means “and others”—must always be typed with a space between the two words and with a period after the “l” (since the “al.” is an abbreviation). A comma does not follow the abbreviation unless the sentence’s grammar requires it.
How do you do in text citations?
In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses. “Here’s a direct quote” (Smith 8). If the author’s name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title. Follow the same formatting that was used in the Works Cited list, such as quotation marks.
How do you cite a citation within a citation APA 6th edition?
Include both the original author and the author of the work where quote/idea was found in the in-text reference. Add “as cited in” before the author in the in-text reference. For example – (as cited in Lewis, 2019).
Does et al need a comma?
In MLA style, a comma is generally only used before et al. in the “Author” slot of works-cited-list entries when the author’s first and last names are reversed: Burdick, Anne, et al.
Does turabian use in-text citations?
(IT) In-Text Author & Date Information Parentheses should enclose in-text references. When page numbers are required, they should be separated by a comma.
How do you cite a primary source in text?
Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Primary Source Document: Subtitle.” Year of creation. Title of Website, Publisher of Website, Publication Date, URL.
What does an APA in text citation include in parentheses when the source is quoted directly and the author’s name is not mentioned in the text?
What would an APA in-text citation include in parentheses when the source is quoted directly and the author’s name is not mentioned in the text? need to include the author’s initials as well as the surname and the exact date of communication. Each source listed in the Reference list must be cited in text.
How do you cite a secondary source in APA?
Follow these directions when citing a secondary source:
- In the reference list, provide an entry for the secondary source that you used.
- In the text, identify the primary source and write “as cited in” the secondary source that you used.
Do you have to list all authors in a citation?
Three to five authors: List all the authors the first time you cite the work: (Ackermann, Benjes-Small, Brainard, Smith, & Vassady, 2009). After the first time, use only the first author’s name followed by et al.: (Ackermann et al., 2009). Six authors or more: Never use them all in the in-text citation.
How do you in text cite two authors?
A Work by Two Authors Name both authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word “and” between the authors’ names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses.
How do you do Chicago style citations?
Generally, Chicago citations require:
- Title of book/article.
- Title of newspaper/journal.
- Publication year.
- Publication month and date.
- City of publication.
- Date of access.
Does Chicago style have in-text citations?
The Chicago Manual of Style has two options for in-text citations: Author-date: you put your citations in parentheses within the text itself. Notes and bibliography: you put your citations in numbered footnotes or endnotes.
How do you in text cite APA with multiple authors?
APA in-text citations with multiple authors If a work has two authors, separate their names with an ampersand (&) in a parenthetical citation or “and” in a narrative citation. If there are three or more authors, only include the first author’s last name followed by “et al.”, meaning “and others”.
How do you address et al?
The expression et al., which is always followed by a period, stands for “and others.” So the greetings above would mean: Dear John and others, Hello, Kimia and others. Sorry, Doug.
How do you cite a primary source in Chicago style?
Chicago Citation Format
- Author’s last name, first name, middle initial (if given).
- Title of document (in italics).
- Format (special presentation).
- Publisher city: publishing company, copyright date (if given).
- Source (From Library of Congress in normal font), Collection name with dates (in italics).
How do you cite a primary source in turabian?
First name Last name, “Article Title,” Newspaper Title, Month Day, Year, edition, section. General format (online): #. First name Last name, “Article Title,” Newspaper Title, Original publication Month Day, Year, URL.
Do you put a comma before an in-text citation APA?
When an author’s name is cited in-text, put the date of the citation in parentheses. When the author’s name is not cited in-text, the author’s last name should be included in the parentheses along with the date, separated by a comma. Use an ampersand (&) instead of the word “and” and place a comma before the date.